Macular Degeneration

Diabetes is the single largest cause of blindness in Canada.
Diabetic retinopathy occurs when there is a weakening or swelling of the tiny blood vessels inside your eye,resulting in blood leakage, growth of new blood vessels and other changes. If diabetic retinopathy is left untreated,blindness can result. Diabetic retinopathy can affect 23% of people with type 1 and 14 % of people with type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms
In the early stages, retinopathy is often without symptoms, so regular eye exams are the best way to detect changes.
Diabetes and its complications can affect many parts of the eye. Diabetes can cause changes in nearsightedness, farsightedness and premature presbyopia – the inability to focus on close objects. It can result in early cataracts, glaucoma, paralysis of the nerves that control the eye muscles or pupil, and decreased corneal sensitivity. Visual symptoms of diabetes include fluctuating or blurring of vision, occasional double vision, sudden loss of vision, blotches or spots in vision, and flashes and floaters within the eyes.
Prevention
Annual eye exams are a crucial part of health care for people with diabetes. Changes in the eye due to diabetes can be detected during an eye exam, and are often the first indication that a person may have the disease, or that a person with diabetes does not have adequate blood sugar control. Annual eye exams with can help identify retinopathy as early as possible, so treatment can minimize damage.
Stable blood sugar reduces the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy, so it is important to monitor and maintain control of your diabetes. See your physician regularly and follow instructions about diet, exercise and medication.
People with diabetes should have annual eye exams, unless it has been recommended to have more frequent evaluations.

Treatment
In the early stages, diabetic retinopathy is monitored through eye health examinations. As the disease progresses it may be treated with injections of anti-VEGF therapy into the eye, laser therapy or vitreoretinal surgery as may be required.
Early detection of diabetic retinopathy is crucial, as treatment is much more likely to be successful at an early stage. Our Doctors can co-manage treatment with an opthamologist or retinal surgeon.
Diabetes is the single largest cause of blindness in Canada.
Diabetic retinopathy occurs when there is a weakening or swelling of the tiny blood vessels inside your eye,resulting in blood leakage, growth of new blood vessels and other changes. If diabetic retinopathy is left untreated, blindness can result. Diabetic retinopathy can affect 23% of people with type 1 and 14 % of people with type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms
In the early stages, retinopathy is often without symptoms, so regular eye exams are the best way to detect changes.
Diabetes and its complications can affect many parts of the eye. Diabetes can cause changes in nearsightedness, farsightedness and premature presbyopia – the inability to focus on close objects. It can result in early cataracts, glaucoma, paralysis of the nerves that control the eye muscles or pupil, and decreased corneal sensitivity. Visual symptoms of diabetes include fluctuating or blurring of vision, occasional double vision, sudden loss of vision, blotches or spots in vision, and flashes and floaters within the eyes.
Prevention
Annual eye exams are a crucial part of health care for people with diabetes. Changes in the eye due to diabetes can be detected during an eye exam, and are often the first indication that a person may have the disease, or that a person with diabetes does not have adequate blood sugar control. Annual eye exams with can help identify retinopathy as early as possible, so treatment can minimize damage.
Stable blood sugar reduces the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy, so it is important to monitor and maintain control of your diabetes. See your physician regularly and follow instructions about diet, exercise and medication.
People with diabetes should have annual eye exams, unless it has been recommended to have more frequent evaluations.

Treatment
In the early stages, diabetic retinopathy is monitored through eye health examinations. As the disease progresses it may be treated with injections of anti-VEGF therapy into the eye, laser therapy or vitreoretinal surgery as may be required.
Early detection of diabetic retinopathy is crucial, as treatment is much more likely to be successful at an early stage. Our Doctors can co-manage treatment with an opthamologist or retinal surgeon.
Diabetes is the single largest cause of blindness in Canada.
Diabetic retinopathy occurs when there is a weakening or swelling of the tiny blood vessels inside your eye,resulting in blood leakage, growth of new blood vessels and other changes. If diabetic retinopathy is left untreated, blindness can result. Diabetic retinopathy can affect 23% of people with type 1 and 14 % of people with type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms
In the early stages, retinopathy is often without symptoms, so regular eye exams are the best way to detect changes.
Diabetes and its complications can affect many parts of the eye. Diabetes can cause changes in nearsightedness, farsightedness and premature presbyopia – the inability to focus on close objects. It can result in early cataracts, glaucoma, paralysis of the nerves that control the eye muscles or pupil, and decreased corneal sensitivity. Visual symptoms of diabetes include fluctuating or blurring of vision, occasional double vision, sudden loss of vision, blotches or spots in vision, and flashes and floaters within the eyes.
Prevention
Annual eye exams are a crucial part of health care for people with diabetes. Changes in the eye due to diabetes can be detected during an eye exam, and are often the first indication that a person may have the disease, or that a person with diabetes does not have adequate blood sugar control. Annual eye exams with can help identify retinopathy as early as possible, so treatment can minimize damage.
Stable blood sugar reduces the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy, so it is important to monitor and maintain control of your diabetes. See your physician regularly and follow instructions about diet, exercise and medication.
People with diabetes should have annual eye exams, unless it has been recommended to have more frequent evaluations.

Treatment
In the early stages, diabetic retinopathy is monitored through eye health examinations. As the disease progresses it may be treated with injections of anti-VEGF therapy into the eye, laser therapy or vitreoretinal surgery as may be required.
Early detection of diabetic retinopathy is crucial, as treatment is much more likely to be successful at an early stage. Our Doctors can co-manage treatment with an opthamologist or retinal surgeon.
Diabetes is the single largest cause of blindness in Canada.
Diabetic retinopathy occurs when there is a weakening or swelling of the tiny blood vessels inside your eye, resulting in blood leakage, growth of new blood vessels and other changes. If diabetic retinopathy is left untreated,blindness can result. Diabetic retinopathy can affect 23% of people with type 1 and 14 % of people with type 2 diabetes.



Symptoms
In the early stages, retinopathy is often without symptoms, so regular eye exams are the best way to detect changes.
Diabetes and its complications can affect many parts of the eye. Diabetes can cause changes in nearsightedness, farsightedness and premature presbyopia – the inability to focus on close objects. It can result in early cataracts, glaucoma, paralysis of the nerves that control the eye muscles or pupil, and decreased corneal sensitivity. Visual symptoms of diabetes include fluctuating or blurring of vision, occasional double vision, sudden loss of vision, blotches or spots in vision, and flashes and floaters within the eyes.
Prevention
Annual eye exams are a crucial part of health care for people with diabetes. Changes in the eye due to diabetes can be detected during an eye exam, and are often the first indication that a person may have the disease, or that a person with diabetes does not have adequate blood sugar control. Annual eye exams with can help identify retinopathy as early as possible, so treatment can minimize damage.
Stable blood sugar reduces the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy, so it is important to monitor and maintain control of your diabetes. See your physician regularly and follow instructions about diet, exercise and medication.
People with diabetes should have annual eye exams, unless it has been recommended to have more frequent evaluations.

Treatment
In the early stages, diabetic retinopathy is monitored through eye health examinations. As the disease progresses it may be treated with injections of anti-VEGF therapy into the eye, laser therapy or vitreoretinal surgery as may be required.
Early detection of diabetic retinopathy is crucial, as treatment is much more likely to be successful at an early stage. Our Doctors can co-manage treatment with an opthamologist or retinal surgeon.
Age-Related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the macula – the central most part of the retina responsible for detailed central vision. The macula is used for reading, driving and recognizing people’s faces. Macular degeneration causes the center of your vision to blur or distort while the side or peripheral vision remains unaffected. It is generally related to the aging process, and is the leading cause of age related blindness in North America in adults over the age of 55. Early detection and preventative measures can delay or reduce vision loss.
There are two types of AMD: dry and wet, with the dry form being more common. Dry AMD results in a more gradual degeneration of the central retinal tissues that make up the macula and symptoms generally develop slowly over time. The wet form is due to a sudden leakage, or bleeding, from weak blood vessels under the macula and symptoms progress rapidly. Wet AMD accounts for approximately 10 per cent of all cases, but the dry form can develop into the wet form over time.
Symptoms
Early macular degeneration is mainly symptom and always pain free but can be detected during routine eye examinations by your Doctor of Optometry. The most common initial symptom is slightly wavy or distorted central vision when performing tasks that require seeing detail. This blurred spot, or sense there is dirt in the way of clear vision, cannot be corrected with eyewear. Over time, the damaged area may increase in size and interfere with reading and recognizing faces.
Treatment
Early detection is crucial as there is currently no cure for AMD. Dry AMD is treated with lifestyle modifications like exercise, wearing sunglasses to reduce UV radiation and stopping smoking. Many cases of wet AMD can be treated with injections of anti-VEGF therapy into the eye to stop the leaking blood vessels. Ocular vitamin supplements including lutein, zeaxanthin, and vitamins C, E and Zinc, can also assist in slowing the early progression of AMD.
Prevention
Lifelong UV protection and good nutrition are believed to play key roles in preventing AMD. Living a healthy lifestyle by keeping your blood pressure down, reducing your intake of fatty foods and not smoking are all recommended. A diet high in antioxidants, such as those found in fruits such as blueberries and leafy vegetables such as spinach and broccoli, may help prevent AMD. Regular eye examinations by your Doctor of Optometry are also important in the early detection of AMD.